December 8, 2016-a Manipur Sorkar thusuok No. 16/20/2016-R chu a tuk, December 9, 2016 khan Manipur Gazette-ah an hung puong a. Kha hmaa Districts pakuohai laia pasari-Imphal East, Senapati, Thoubal, Chandel, Ukhrul, Churachandpur le Tamenglong- tina khan District thar pakhat seng belin Revenue District thar 7 a hung pieng a. Chuonghai laia Churachandpur District-a inthoka khoi thlak District thar hung pieng chu Pherzawl District a ni a, a huop chin chu Pherzawl, Thanlon, Parbung-Tipaimukh & Vangai Range a nih.
District hmunpui innghatna le a hming phurtu Pherzawl hi zum le hriem le dolung le tubo inkara Bulhmang inrawina hnuoia arasi tlak kum 1884 vela nghet taka an hluo tran niin upahai chun an hril. ‘Hmar Biel’ tia hriet, Tipaimukh Sub-Division sunga hin Pherzawl chauh hi Thado-Kuki lalhai inlalna hnuoia um lo Hmar khuo um sun a nih. Khang hun lai khan Mizoram chu Sailo lalhai inlalna hnuoia um deuh vong a ni a, Manipur tlangram a tam lem chu Kuki lalhai hnuoia khawsa an nih. Chuleiin, hmar tieng pana intawl phei a, Manipur le a se vela hmun an hung khuor khan Sailo lalhai laka hum theitu dinga bel tlaka an ngai chu Kuki lalhai an ni leiin, khaw thar an satna taphot deuthaw-ah, an sa himna dingin, lal dingin Thadohai an fiel a, an him pha tah bok hrim a nih.
Chuong laia mi huoisen fâl um sun chu Pherzawl lalhai sungkuo an nih. Khang hun laia Khuongzang lal Ngullien khan Kailamhnuoi po po hi a thuneina hnuoia umah a ngai a. Pherzawl lal Bulhmang a neksawr dan khom hahipa hril a tling. A vuok sil-ong leia kum 1915-a a naupa Dolur kum 13 mi chauh a ni laia a thisan a nih. Ngullien chu a thi a, ropui bung bunga an lalna khuo chu kum 1960 laia inthok khan khaw rausan hmun a lo inchang tah. Bulhmang khom muol a liem a, sienkhom a khaw sat chu thiemna kotsuo hung niin, a thia inthoka kum 111-ah District thar hming puttu a hung ni pei bok a nih.
Hmun threnkhat hi khuonuin lamthruom poimawa ngir dinga a lo duong lawk hrim amanih ti dinga histawri fe le hungin a sir hlak a um a. Hi le inzom hin Pherzawl le Bethlehem ti artikul khom ka ziek tah nghe nghe a. Kum 1951 khan H.Thanglora inrawina hnuoiah Pherzawl High School an indin a, Manipur tlangrama high school ngir hmasa tak a nih. Kum 1954 khan Matriculation Exam tran a ni a, kum sawm vel sung chauhin Matriculate 80 chuong an suok hman a. Hienghai hi ram le hnam bulthrut remtu an hung ni a, sir tinah hmasawnna kalbi ei hung suot tran ve tah a nih. Ram le hnam pawlitiks kalchawinaa dam, hnam aidentiti hung inser tungna konga dam, thu le hla hung inder suokna zungpui dam ei sui chun Pherzawl hi a hnukpui a lo nizie le Pherzawl thrang loin ei ram le hnam histawri hi ziek thei a ni nawzie inhmai ruol a ni nawh. Kha hmaa British-hai mi op laia Churachandpur-a inthoka Tipaimukh paw ding lamlien (mule road) an siem, Tipaimukh Road le Vuite (Guite) Road chu Pherzawl (Dawrkawnah) an infintir khan hi khuo hi khan poimaw (strategic location) a nizie a lo hril ta a. District hming puttu le hmunpui innghatnaa hmang a ni pei hi khuonu ruot sukpuitlingna a ni pei a nih ti inla ei hril suol ka ring nawh.
Vangduoithlak takin, kum 1964 vela inthok khan sawt naw te sungin, eini rawi enkolna kut hnuoiah Pherzawl High School chu damten ei hung phur thluk a, kum tin deuthawa rizal suok changa ri ei hriet chu NIL a nih. Kum 1990 bawr ei hung kai tung a, Ex-MLA L. Rokung inkhawmpui fe trum khat chu Pherzawl palaihaiin, “English medium school ngot an hong a, naupang fee chawi zo lo haiin kaina ding an invaina a sawt ta a. Hi lei hin kan nunghak tlangval tam tak le naupang hung seilien peihai hi lekha khom tiem thei ta lo deu vong an ni tah a. Chuleiin, Hmar Medium School kan mamaw a nih” tiin dawvan an lo kai a. High School ngirna hmasa tak khuoa chuong ang thil a tlung el chu pangzatum a ti a, a lungril a na em em a. A tranna dingin singkhat a pek a, kum 1995 khan ‘Rokung Hmar Medium School’ an tran a, kum tin sangnga a pek bakah khorsaw ding a pek bok a. A hnunga RPC-in an hung lak hnung le chawmna naupang 50 ta ding an hung pek hnung chun Matric tling khom an hung kat nok tah a nih. (Ref. Ka Nun, p.191-192).
Pherzawl High School Golden Jubilee (1951-2000) Souvenir, kum 2001-a Delhi tlanga inthoka sut kha Editor ka ni leiin kum tam tak hnung khoma tiem tlak le ro tling ni dinga uluk taka buotsai, a sikul suok le a enkoltuhai mi hrang hrang 30-in thu le hla an thaw khawm a ni a, a sawt po leh a hlutna pung deu deu a tih. Kha Souvenir-a Pherzawl High School tluksietna san laia pakhat nia Assistant Headmaster L.Rothang hmu dan chun “Tuta hmaa a hming thratna po po kha 1964 laia inthokin a se tran niin ka hriet a. A san tak nia ka hriet chu, Teaching Staff hai hi qualification-a chu thiem tak tak vong an nia chu ram le hnam ta dinga thok an nih ti an theinghil amanih an hriet nuom ta naw niin an lang. Hmangaina le ditsakna leh taima tak le thrahnemngai takin enkol hai sien chu a ni têlin hung thra nawk tiel tiel a ta, sawt naw teah ngai chauh hung aw loin a hmaa a hming thratna khom nasa nawkzuolin hung khûm a tih ti ka ring tlat a nih” (p.22) ti a nih.
Chun, Pherzawl High School sul suok ngeiin lalna an hung chang hnung khan a khuo sukchangkang neka hremna kut thlak nuom lem dam ei um amani aw ti dingin thil a um. Hi thil hi Pherzawl khuoin a thawhla khop el. Sienkhom, rau deua hril chun, lamthruom poimawa ngir dinga thlangtu chun a theinghil naw a, a hnam thlanghai sansuoktu dinga lal dang daih Kura (Cyrus) a hmang ang khan kut dang daih hmangin ngirhmun poimaw lem le insang lemah a hung hlangkai tah lem a nih. Chu hming thratna chu inchu tuma an thaw der naw khom thawa inhril phêt phĕt tum dam an hung suok truk truk a ni khomin, mi piengsuol nungchang a nih ti hretu chun an phu tawk ang peiin a rul hlak ti hre a, inhnar loa lunginsiet lem ding an nih.
A ieng ieng khom lo ni tah sien, Pherzawl hminga District thar a hung pieng le a khuoa ngei hmunpui a hung innghat hi, sir tina inthoka thlirin, thil awm hlie hlie a nih. A sunga chenghai laia mi a tam lem chu Hmar hnathlak an ni leiin, kum 1950 bawr laia inthoka Hmar Autonomous District an lo hni hlak sukpuitlingnaa ngai pawl an um a ni khomin thilmaka ngai ding a ni nawh. Amiruokchu, Secular State sunga Secular District hung pieng a ni leiin tu hnam bing ta bik a ni nawh ti hriet fie a thra; a sunga hmun khuor thei dinga India Danpuiin a phalhai chun inthlierna, inkhuokhirna le inrikrapna um loa zalen taka umhmun an bengbel chu an piengvo le chanvo a nih.
Revenue District hi iem a na?
Ei hriet thiem thei zawngin hrilfie tum inla. State sorkarin sie (tax) chi hrang hrang a khonna ding le inrelbawlna hrang hrang sukolsam le zangkhaina dingin a rambung sung chu biel tum tumin a thre dar thei a, chu chu Revenue District ei ti hih a nih. A enkoltu lu tak chu District Collector/Commissioner a nih. Kum 2016-a India rama District um zat chu 707 a ni a, Manipur-a district thar 7 belsa chun 714 ning a tih. Hieng District-hai hi State sorkar thusuoka siem le thriek el thei a ni laiin, inhumhimna bik nei, entirnan Sixth Schedule hnuoia um Autonomous District Council le a angpuihai chu Indian Parliament-in a pompui le India Danpui (Constitution) a hlu lut a ngai. Manipur-a tlangram district hai hi ieng Schedule hnuoia khom an um nawh. Inhumhimna an nei sun chu Manipur State Consitution Act, 1947 hnuoia siem Hill People’s Regulation, 1947 dam, Manipur Union Territory Council Act, 1956 hnuoia indin Hill Area Committee dam le North-Eastern State Reorganisation Act, 1971 le Article 371-C hnuoia Hill Area Committee (HAC) an indin dam a nih. A kip a kawia hrilfiena hman a um naw leiin, hi chungthua Prof. Gangmumei Kamei dam laia a ziek ‘Hill Area Committee (HAC) of Manipur Legislative Assembly: An Assessment’ (Part 2) chu kil de sa a nih. Ei ngirhmun hi hre chieng loa ar khaw thim dai thaw ei ni tlangpui leiin, chik taka ei bi seng ka nuom. Chu chun ei inhumhimna kul nei sun vengtu dinga ei dandehaiin an mawphurna an hlen nawzie le an kutah ei him nawzie hre chieng thei ei tih. Mipui lungsenin vok hnota hnot a, an inah mei an inkhuk dam kha thil dangdai a ni naw el thei.
Lungte sema District thar 7 zet hmawsaruma inthlang ding tawma an sem hin titi a suktam hle. Ieng ngirhmun chie am an inhluotir ding ti hrilfiena le sukchiengna ieng khom a la um nawh niin an lang. Kum 2015-a HAC pal zuta Manipur Legislative Assembly-a Bill Pathum an put lut le hmawsaruma an pom, kalna nasa tak um leia India President-in a hnawl nek hmana trium lem chu Revenue District phalrai pawlisi hi ni dinga ngai pawl an um. Tlangmihai inthuruolna a chim ruola a mal mala hmal tril an la hung ni ding pangzatumzie ngai ngam lo le chu chu a tlung hmaa tlang taka iengkim rel fel nuom pawl an um bok. Thuneina chel zui pei beiseituhai chun ieng ang hmangruo tirdakum khom hmanga inzor zui pei an poiti nawh niin a’n lang. Ei fimkhur naw chun, a ieng amani chuh inhâkin ei inthal rum ding a nih. Hieng ang hun khirkhana hin a nih thruoitu fel, ringum, thatho le hmathlir sei tak nei ei mamaw chu nih.
Ei hmathlir ieng am?
Ei buzawl, ei sumphukah sahrang lu an mi hung innghatpek ta si si chun, inpui hluotu ni tlin taka hlen dingin ei dierkei ei kei nghet sauh sauh a trul. Ngirhmun thara chuong kai ei ni tah leiin puitling taka ei inrelbawl a ngai. Ei thlirna tukver hong lienin, mit tharin thlir ei tiu. Rome khawpui chu ni khat ela bawl a ni naw angin, District hmunpui nghet le tlo indin ding chun kha hmaa tru bawla iengkim bawl ei tum hlak lungril kha bansan a ngai. Hieng ang hun hi thiemna bik neihai thiemna le tonhriet sor trangkai hun a nih.
Tuta inthoka kum sawmnga, za, zanga le sang chena District hmunpui hung inthrang pei ding huna a ruongam ding duongtu pawl an um a ngai. Chu phaa tlan khop tui lakna ding rel a ngai. Kum sawt naw teah College le training centre chi hrang hrang makmawa a hung ngir ding a ni leiin, a se vela chenghaiin an hung bel lut lut khopa thraa siem dinga inbuotsai a trul. Pherzawl khaw hmun hlui dam hi University innghatna ding le hi tlanga inthoka technology hmanga boruok zaia ei nunghak-tlangvalhaiin khawvel lien lem an dawrna ding hmuna lungrila ka lo huol hlak a nih. Town Planning fel fai tak nei a, a blueprint ang thlapa kotthler le bazar hmun dinghai rel ding a nih. Kha hmaa ang bokin, a tlang tluonin ram rizap siem nawk a, vat pawn khap a, thing le ruohai humhal a, thing thra chi a tam thei ang tak phun sap a, humhal ding a nih. Hung inthrang pei a ta, Pherzawl tlang dung po po, Lawibuol, Tinsuong, Khuongzang le Damdiei chenin a la hung inzar ding a ni leiin, ram pek le sem thua khom mumal nei tak le renchem taka thaw a ngai. Kha hmaa ei lo thaw dan anga mikhuol intlungtir kha bansana khuolbuka inthawl taka tlung lem ei hung ching tah ding a ni leiin tlungna tlak khuolbuk siem a ngai a, chu chu sum hnâr le sin tam tak hongtu ni bok a tih.
Infepawna kar lam thra hi thil makmaw a nih. Imphal hnukpui khar hlaktu Dimapur Road le Jiribam Road hmang loa kum tluona Tuiruong dung le Mon Bahadur Road hmanga Silchara inthoka mamaw lak lut zing theina lampui um sun chu Pherzawl District a ni leiin, lampui siem thrat vat vat a ngai. Thanlona inthoka Khuongzang tieng hrawa Pherzawl hung lut theina ding lampui thar siel a ngai bok. Chun, kha hmaa Chin Hills-a inthoka sumdawnghan Pherzawl an hung dawrna hlak lampui hong nawk thra bok a tih. Look East Policy hi dam tea sukpuitling a hung ni pei ruolin, hi indawrna lampui poimawna hi hung pung pei a tih.
Hieng ei hrilhai hi entirna ang chauha ei hung tar lang a nih. Manipura cheng tlangmihai ngirhmun hi ching fel vat a trul. Ram chite reka neitu nina hau ngam vong um khawm ei ni a, a tam lem hlak chuh a ram zaa threa sawm sung biela inbeng khawm an ni a, a him naw tak an nina chin a um. Ei him tlang thei dan kong iemani bek dap suok a trul makmaw. Hienga ei insekhek zing chun India hmarsak a hung inhong pei ruolin prawzek hrang hranga sinthaw dingin vairampura mi a nuoi telin hung lut hum hum an ta, chim ralin ei la um vong ding a nih. Tu khom him bik ding ei um nawh.
(January 27, 2017, Delhi)
Hill Area Committee (HAC) of Manipur Legislative Assembly: An Assessment
By Prof Gangmumei Kamei
(21 Oct 1939-5 Jan 2017)
Manipur is a multi-ethnic state of which the tribal constitute 32 percent of her population. At the time of granting statehood to Manipur in 1972, the Indian Parliament provided the Hill Area Committee of the Manipur Legislative Assembly to provide legislative protection to the interest of the hill areas.
A rapid appraisal of the working of the Hill Area Committee (HAC) during the last 40 years has unfortunately shown that it has failed to act as an effective committee, to protect the interest of the hill people. A brief assessment of the working of the HACs is given below:
1) “Tribal Area” and “Hill Area” under the Indian Constitution and the Loss of Manipur
The Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of the India provide the mechanism for the administration of the Scheduled Tribes and they refer to two areas. One is called the Tribal Areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and some selected areas of Mizoram under the Sixth Schedule. The tribal areas of Manipur are included in the Schedule Areas but not covered by the Tribal Areas of the Sixth Schedule.
Article 371 (C) of the India Constitution provides a special provision for the legislation and the administration of the hill areas of Manipur in the form of Hill Area Committee. According to the Manipur Legislative Assembly (Hill Area Committee) Order 1972, “the Hill Areas” mean the areas specified in the First Schedule of the Order. The First Schedule mentions the hill districts and sub-divisions therein created by the Government of Manipur from time to time as the Hill Areas. The term Hill Areas has a historical background. During the colonial period, “The Hill Tribes” was used under the Rules for the Management of Hill Tribes, 1935.
This rule was the application of Chin Hills Regulation of 1896 in spirit but not in letters. At the time of India’s independence, the term “Hill Tribe” was substituted by the term “Hill People” in the Manipur Hill People’s Regulation, 1947 and the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947. Even in the composition of the 53 Member Assembly, 18 seats were reserved for the hill areas. After the Merger of Manipur to the Dominion of India as per the Order of the President of India in 1950, the term Schedule Tribes was used to mean any Naga, any Kuki and any Lushai tribes.
The Schedule Tribes were fragmented to 29 tribes in 1956 and 33 in 2003. In the Parliament (1952), Territorial Council (1957), Territorial Assembly (1963) and State Assembly (1972) seats were reserved for Scheduled Tribes. However, the Government of India or the State Government stick to the term “Hill Areas” in the legislation like Manipur Hill Areas Village Authorities Act, 1956, the Manipur Land Revenues and Land Reform Act, 1960, the Manipur Hill Areas Councils Act, 1971 or the Manipur Hill Areas Autonomous District Council, 2000 (since repealed in 2006).
Crucial to this issue of Hills Areas or Tribal Areas is the population who are the tribal people or the Scheduled Tribes. The tribal people populate the Area…, therefore, it is appropriate to adopt the term, “Tribal Area” in the administration of district or subdivision inhabited by the Scheduled Tribe population.
2) Evolution of Administration in Tribal Areas
(i) The Traditional Tribal Polity
Prof Gangmumei Kamei (Ethnicity and Social Change, 2007, page 174) writes, “The tribal people of Manipur, both the Nagas and the Kuki-Chins had developed their own polity. However, their polity did not grow beyond the village level. They did not develop into tribe level polity formation. Therefore, the village is the autonomous political, social, economic and cultural entity. There are two kinds of polity.
Among the Nagas, there is a sort of democratic type of political system, which was described by colonial writer as “small republics”. Among the Kuki-Chins, the chieftainship is the main political system. The rulers of Manipur recognized this traditional polity during the pre-colonial period.
During the British rule, the polity formation was adopted as a unit of regular administration. In the post-independence period, the laws of Manipur diluted the traditional polity but the people themselves still continue to profess their customs and tradition which form the core of their polity.
The traditional polity has a clear cut boundary of the village; there was a well-regulated land ownership system, a judicial system and other social institutions based on customary laws. The land ownership includes the community land, clan land and individual land among the Nagas. There is the chief’s ownership of land among the Kuki-Chins.
The traditional polity has eroded due to the Indian legislations relating to crime, forest and revenue and with the emergence of private property in the tribal society. The tribal customary laws are very powerful guiding principles in the perpetuation of the polity in tribal villages.”
It has been observed that throughout the pre-colonial period the traditional tribal polity either of the Nagas or the Kuki-Chins continued to be form of administration. The Meitei monarchy or the State did not interfere and the villages were autonomous political entities which were outside the jurisdiction of the administration of the State of Manipur except in the villages along the trade routes.
(ii) Tribes under the Colonial Rule
After the British conquest of Manipur in 1891, the Hill Areas came under the rule of the British Political Agent who acted on behalf of minor Raja Churachand Singh. The British introduced the system of indirect rule. Under this system, the British did not rule the hill tribes directly. They did not interfere in the internal affairs of the tribal villages. They introduced the Hill House Tax of Rs 3 per household per year. They made the chiefs or the headmen of the villages responsible for the administration of the villages.
Though Raja Churachand Singh was handed over the administration of the State of Manipur, his jurisdiction was confined to the valley and he was not allowed to administer in hill areas. In 1913, a British ICS officer was appointed as the President of the Manipur State Durbar and he was entrusted in his discretion to look after the hill areas.
Therefore, the President of the Manipur State Durbar (PMSD) was the most important colonial officer to look after the hill areas. The British created hill sub-divisions after the Kuki Rebellion (1917-1919). The British Government ultimately framed the Rules for Management of Hill Tribes in 1945. During the Second World War, Manipur became a battle field between the invading Japanese forces and the Allied Forces (1942-1944) and the administration in the hills collapsed.
After the war, there was a spontaneous growth of political consciousness among the people of Manipur including the hill people. Due to public pressure, the Maharaja of Manipur introduced two important legislations, namely, the Manipur State Constitution Act and the Manipur Hill People’s Regulation in 1947.
(iii) Manipur Hill People’s Regulation
The Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947 provide for a democratic constitutional monarchy. There was a 53-member assembly including 18 MLAs from hill. There was a council of ministers consisting of several ministers who had to supervise the administration of hill area under Manipur Hill People’s Regulation, 1947 which was a well formulated local government system for the hill areas.
The Regulation further provided for a three tier judicial system. There was a Village Authority in a village of 20 or more tax paying houses. There was a circle authority over this village authorities and the apex was also a Hill Bench and above the Hill Bench was the Chief Court of Manipur. The Regulation was praised as a good piece of legislation in hill areas. It constitutes to operate in Manipur even after Merger into Indian Union, and the abolition of the Chief Court and Hill Bench (1956) and the Circle Authority (1955).
3) The Constitutional Provision for legislation and administration in Hill Areas:
Hill Standing Committee and Hill Areas Committee (HAC)
With the introduction of Union Territory Council Act, 1956, Manipur was provided a Council of 30 members and 2 nominated members. This Council was provided with a committee known as Hill Standing Committee with a separate Chairman. The Committee consisted of the Territorial Council member from hill constituencies.
In the North Eastern State Reorganization Act, 1971 accompanied by the introduction of Article 371 (C) in the Constitution of India, in the Legislative Assembly of Manipur, a standing Committee named Hill Area Committee was constituted. The Hill Area Committee is empowered by the Constitution to monitor the law making and administration of hill areas. At the time of movement for statehood in Manipur, the tribal leaders wanted constitutional safeguard for tribal people.
The Parliament provides the Constitutional safeguards in form of an amendment, Article 371 (C) in the Constitution of India.
According to this Article, “The President may…..provide for the constitution and functioning of a Committee of the Legislative Assembly of the State consisting of the members of the Assembly elected from the Hill Areas…for any special responsibility of the Governor in order to secure the proper functioning of the Committee.”
The sub-section No (2) of this Article further states, “The Governor shall annually or whenever so required by the President, make a report to the President regarding the Hill Areas in the State of Manipur and the execution power of the Union shall extend to the giving of direction to the state as to administration of the said area.”
As per this Constitutional provision:
1st, the President of India shall constitute the Hill Area Committee of the Assembly,
2nd , the Governor has been entrusted a special responsibility and power to ensure that the Hill Areas Committee functions properly,
3rd the Governor shall report periodically to the President on the administration in Hill Areas,
4th, the Government of India is empowered to issue direction to the state on the status of administration in the hill areas.
Dr VV Giri President of India promulgated the Manipur Legislative Assembly (Hill Areas Committee) Order, 1972. The First Schedule of the order describes the “Hill Areas” and the Second Schedule contains the list of the Schedule Matters (13 in number).
The Hill Areas Committee had four legislative functions.
- All Bills except money Bill containing the Schedule Matters shall be referred to HAC for consideration and report to the Assembly.
- The HAC shall have the right to consider and pass resolution recommended by the government of the state, legislative or executive action affecting the Hill Areas with respect to the Scheduled Matters.
- The HAC shall have the right to discuss the Annual Financial Statement (State Budget) in so far it relates to the Hill Areas and to facilitate discussion in the budget of Hill Areas.
- The Bill recommended by the HAC may be passed by the Assembly with variation.
With regard to the general functions:
- The HAC shall safeguard the interest of the people of the Hill Areas particularly the accelerated development of the area.
- The HAC shall promote unity between the people of the Hill Areas and other areas of the state.
- The HAC has special responsibility on the development plan of the Hill Areas, “The development plan shall be placed before the HAC for its views and its views will be taken in account before the plans are finalized”.
The Government shall submit quarterly report to the HAC showing the progress of the implementation of the plans.
The Scheduled Matters which are under the Jurisdiction of the HAC are:
- The power and function of the District Councils
- Development and Economic Planning
- Allotment, Occupation or use or sell a part of land
- Management of Forest (other than Reserve Forest)
- Use of Land and Water resources for the purpose of agriculture
- Regulation of the practice of Jhum or the other forms of shifting cultivation
- Establishment of village committee or council and their power and their matter relating to village administration
- Public health and sanitation
- The appointment or succession of chief or the headman
- Inheritance of property
- Marriage and divorce
- Social customs
- Any other matter, which the Assembly may by resolution declare to be a matter which shall come within the provision of the Hills Areas Committee.
The analysis of the power and function of the Hill Areas Committee shows that the HAC is a powerful instrument to safeguard the tribal interests and promote good governance and developmental process in the Hill Areas. However, it is necessary to examine how far the HAC has been able to protect the tribal interests.
- It is said but true that the HAC has been sabotaged by the Legislative Assembly controlled by ruling parties and the executive departments. It has become a white elephant of the legislature of Manipur.
- The leaders who are supposed to be key players in the HAC are more obsessed with their identity political aspiration and competition to get benefits of the office of the Chief Minister and other Ministers keep their eyes shut on the problems to be discussed in the Committee. They have not succeeded in evolving common ground or consensus on common tribal issues like district autonomy, reservation for Scheduled Tribes in recruitment to Government services and problems of land laws in hill areas.
- The post of the Chairman of the Hill Areas Committee which is the main pivot of the Committee has become a mere tool in the hands of the ruling party without caring for the common tribal interest.
- The Government represented by the Ministers and bureaucrats dealing with different departments have totally ignored the Hill Areas Committee. There is great need for change of the mindset of the legislators of both the valley and the hills towards this important constitutional safeguard provided at the time of granting of statehood. With a positive attitude towards the Article 371 (C) and subjects provided in the Scheduled of the President’s Order, 1972 several effective measures can be taken up.
- Governor of the state is duty bound under the Constitution to monitor the working of Hill Areas Committee and the administration of the hill/tribal areas
- Most importantly, the leaders of the hill people and the tribal intellectuals including the members of the media are to compel the members of the Hills Areas Committee to do their job as provided by this important constitutional safeguard.
Source: Hueiyen Lanpao (English). This article was posted at e-Pao.net on December 17, 2012.
 Sponsored by Sinlung Academy of Letters (SAL) through the good offices and assistance of the Hmar Students’ Association, Delhi Joint Headquarters at Conference Hall, Centre for the Study of Law and Governance, JNU, New Delhi on January 28, 2017 (1200-1600 hrs). ‘Dawntlang’ is a convenient term for ‘seminar’ and the likes coined by HSA Delhi in 2016.